Resetting PRAM on a Mac



Mac computers store certain settings in a special area of memory called PRAM (Parameter Random Access Memory).

Information stored in PRAM includes:

  • Speaker volume
  • Screen resolution
  • Startup disk selection
  • Recent kernel panic information, if any

If you experience issues related to these functions, you may need to reset the PRAM. For example, if a Mac starts up from a startup disk other than the one specified in Startup Disk preferences or if a question mark icon appears briefly when your Mac starts up, resetting PRAM may help.


  • Students
  • Faculty
  • Staff
  • Guests


  • Mac device


  1. Press the Command (⌘) + Option + P + R keys.

  2. Restart the computer.
  3. Hold down all four keys until you have heard the startup sound twice. Release the keys after the second startup sound.
  4. Check to see if the issue has been resolved.

    Note: After resetting PRAM, you may need to reconfigure settings for speaker volume, screen resolution, startup disk selection, and time zone information.
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Article ID: 68
Mon 5/23/22 1:51 PM
Wed 10/4/23 12:47 PM

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